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abbot The abbot is the head of a monastery.

One Chinese term for abbot, fangzhang 'ten feet square' is a term used primarily in Chan monasteries and refers to the ideal size of the abbot's quarters. The great enlightened Buddhist layman Vimalakirti, who lived during the time of the Buddha, was said to have lived in a stone room of that size.

Another frequently used Chinese term for abbot is zhuchi, literally "dweller and upholder", is explained as meaning that the abbot is one who protects the Dharma while abiding peacefully in the world.

1) Chinese Mandarin: fangzhang , zhuchi , 2) Sanskrit: vihAradhishvara, 3) Pali: viharadhipati.

(Source: Epstein, 2003: p. 2)

(NOTE: Numerous corrections and enhancements have been made under Shastra tradition and "Fair Use" by an Anonymous Buddhist Monk Redactor (Compiler) of this Online Buddhist Encyclopedia Compilation)

Search Results(mwd) = Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon

(cap) = Capeller's Sanskrit-English Dictionary (otl) = Cologne Online Tamil Lexicon (cpd) = Concise Pahlavi Dictionary

1	(mwd)	vihara	&c. see %{vi-hR} , col. 2. 

2 (mwd) vihara m. taking away , removing , shifting , changing Bhartr2. ; separation , disunion , absence W. 3 (mwd) vihAra m. (once in BhP. n.) distribution , transposition (of words) AitBr. La1t2y. ; arrangement or disposition (of the 3 sacred fires ; also applied to the fires themselves or the space between them) , S3rS. ; too great expansion of the organs of speech (consisting in too great lengthening or drawling in pronunciation , opp. to %{saM-hAra} q.v.) RPra1t. ; walking for pleasure or amusement , wandering , roaming MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; sport , play , pastime , diversion , enjoyment , pleasure (`" in "' or `" with "' comp. ; ifc. also = taking delight in) Ya1jn5. MBh. R. &c. ; a place of recreation , pleasure-ground MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; (with Buddhists or Jainas) a monastery or temple (originally a hall where the monks met or walked about ; afterwards these halls were used as temples) Lalit. Mr2icch. Katha1s. &c. (cf. MWB. 68 ; 81 &c.) ; consecration for a sacrifice A1past. ; N. of the country of Magadha (called Biha1r or Beha1r from the number of Buddhist monasteries see MWB. 68) Cat. ; the shoulder L. ; a partic. bird (= %{bindurekaka}) L. ; = %{vaijayanta} L. ; %{-kArikA} f. pl. N. of wk. ; %{-krIDA-mRga} m. a toy-antelope to play with BhP. ; %{-gRha} n. a pleasure-house , play-house , theatre MW. ; %{-dAsI} f. a female attendant of a convent or temple Ma1lati1m. ; %{-deza} m. a place of recreation , pleasure-ground MBh. R. Ma1rkP. ; %{-bhadra} m. N. of a man Das3. ; %{-bhUmi} f. = %{-deza} Hariv. ; a grazing-ground , pasturage Kir. ; %{-yAtrA} f. a pleasure-walk MBh. ; %{-vat} mfn. possessing a place of recreation Mn. MBh. ; (ifc.) delighting in Mn. x , 9 ; %{-vana} n. a pleasure-grove Das3. ; %{-vApI} f. `" plñpleasure-pond "'N. of wk. ; %{-vAri} n. water for sporting or playing about in Ragh. ; %{-zayana} n. a plñpleasure-couch R. ; %{-zaila} m. a plñpleasure-mountain R. ; %{-sthalI} f. (Va1s.) , %{-sthAna} n. (BhP.) ; %{-rA7jira} n. (= %{-radeza}) ; %{-rA7vasatha} m. (= %{-ra-gRha}) MBh. 4 (mwd) vIhAra m. = %{vi-h-} , a temple , sanctuary , (esp.) a Jaina or Buddhist convent or temple W. 5 (cap) vihara m. transposition, change. 6 (cap) vihAra m. (n.) distribution, arrangement, esp. of the sacred fires, & these themselves; expansion, esp. of the organs of speech; relaxation, recreation, amusement, sport, pastime, delight in (---, also adj.); walking for pleasure, roaming about; place of recreation, pleasure-garden, grove; a Buddhist or Jaina temple or convent (also {-rikA} f.).

abbot 上方, 和尚, 方丈, 院主

上方 [Pronunciations] [py] shàngfāng [wg] shang-fang [hg] 상방 [mc] sangbang [mr] sangbang [kk] ジョウホウ [hb] jōhō [qn] thượng phương

Meanings [Basic Meaning:] abbot

Senses: 上手 An abbot. 上方 originally meant a mountain monastery." [cmuller ; source(s): Soothill] 〔大乘起信論義記 T 1846.44.267b19, 阿彌陀經 T 366.12.347c16, 瑜伽論 T 1579.30.715b29 〕

[Dictionary References]

Zengaku daijiten (Komazawa U.)585a Zenrin shōkisen (Mujaku Dōchū)202/168 Japanese-English Zen Buddhist Dictionary (Yokoi)291 Bukkyōgo daijiten (Nakamura)743b Ding Fubao Buddhist Chinese-Sanskrit Dictionary (Hirakawa)29 Bukkyō daijiten (Oda)972-2

Copyright provisions

The rights to textual segments (nodes) of the DDB are owned by the author indicated in the brackets next to each segment. For rights regarding the compilation as a whole, please contact Charles Muller. Please do not reproduce without permission.'b4e0a-65b9')

和尚 [Pronunciations] [py] héshàng [wg] ho-shang [hg] 화상 [mc] hwasang [mr] hwasang [kk] ワショウ [hb] washō [qn] hoà thượng

Meanings [Basic Meaning:] preceptor

Senses: Chinese translation of the Sanskrit upādhāya, meaning—a Buddhist teacher who imparts the precepts to the practitioner. Transcribed as 鄔波馱耶. [cmuller] An abbot; a Buddhist priest. In Japanese, this word is pronounced variously: In Zen oshō, in Tendai, kashō, and in Shingon, washō. [cmuller] (Skt. upadhyāya; Pali upajjhāya) [cmuller ; source(s): Hirakawa] [Soothill] "A general term for a monk. It is said to be derived from Khotan in the form of 和闍 or 和社 (or 烏社) which might be a translit. of vandya (Tibetan and Khotani ban-de), 'reverend.' Later it took the form of 和尚 or 和上. The 律宗 use 和上, others generally 和尚. The Sanskrit term used in its interpretation is 鳥波陀耶 upādhyāya, a 'sub-teacher' of the Vedas, inferior to an ācārya; this is intp. as 力生 strong in producing (knowledge), or in begetting strength in his disciples; also by 知有罪知無罪 a discerner of sin from not-sin, or the sinful from the not-sinful. It has been used as a synonym for 法師 a teacher of doctrine, in distinction from 律師 a teacher of the vinaya, also from 禪師 a teacher of the Intuitive school." [cmuller ; source(s): Soothill] Also 烏波陀耶. [cmuller] 〔四分律 T 1428.22.680c21, 五分律 T 1421.22.4b25 〕

[Dictionary References]

A Glossary of Zen Terms (Inagaki) 7 Bukkyō daijiten (Mochizuki) (v.1-6)754b, (v.1-6)754a,227c,401c Bukkyō daijiten (Oda) 1853-3, 330-2, 149-2*1873-1 Zengaku daijiten (Komazawa U.) 129c, 159c Iwanami Bukkyō jiten 92, 119 Japanese-English Buddhist Dictionary (Daitō shuppansha) 165a/182, 229a/255 Zenrin shōkisen (Mujaku Dōchū) 202/169 Japanese-English Zen Buddhist Dictionary (Yokoi) 518 Bukkyōgo daijiten (Nakamura) 124a, 150d Fo Guang Dictionary 3124 Ding Fubao Buddhist Chinese-Sanskrit Dictionary (Hirakawa) 252

Copyright provisions

The rights to textual segments (nodes) of the DDB are owned by the author indicated in the brackets next to each segment. For rights regarding the compilation as a whole, please contact Charles Muller. Please do not reproduce without permission.'b548c-5c1a')

Adapted from Fair Use Source: Upasaka Ron Epstein, Buddhism A to Z, 1999: p. 2

Primary Original Source: The Tripitaka of Sutra, Shastra and Vinaya Dharma teachings (as found in the scripture storehouse of the Indian Sanskrit- Siddham, Chinese, Tibetan and Japanese traditions of the Nalanda Tradition of ancient Nalanda University) of Shakyamuni Buddha, and his Arya Sagely Bodhisattva Bhikshu Monk and Upasaka disciples.

These Good and Wise Advisors (Kaliyanamitra) Dharma Master teachers include Arya Venerables Nagarjuna, Ashvaghosha, Aryasura, Aryadeva, Kumarajiva, Shantideva, Chandrakirti, Chandragomin, Vasubandhu, Asanga, Hui Neng, Atisha, Kamalashila, Dharmarakshita, Tsong Khapa, Thogme Zangpo, Patanjali, Sushruta, Charaka, Vagbhata, Nichiren, Hsu Yun, Hsuan Hua, Shen Kai, Tenzin Gyatso, Kyabje Zopa, Ajahn Chah, Vasant Lad, and other modern day masters. We consider them to be in accord with Tripitaka Master ]]Hsuan Hua]]’s "Seven Guidelines for Recognizing Genuine Teachers"

Nalanda Online University's teachings are based especially on the Dharma Flower Lotus Sutra, the Avatamsaka Sutra, the Shurangama Sutra, the Ksitigarbha Sutra, the Bhaisajya Guru Sutra, the Dharani Sutra, the Vajra Sutra, the Prajna Paramita Hridayam Heart Sutra, the Guhyasamaja, the Kalachakra, the Vajrayogini and Heruka Tantras and their commentaries (shastras) by the above Arya Tripitakacharya Dharma Masters.

Fair Use Compilation Sources for the Above Material on the Teachings of the Buddha Dharma and Sangha:

Primary Fair Use Compilation Source: Epstein, Ronald B., Ph.D, compiler, Buddhist Text Translation Society's Buddhism A to Z, Burlingame, California: Buddhist Text Translation Society, 2003. ISBN 0881393533 Paperback: 284 pages.


Secondary Fair Use Compilation Source: The Seeker’s Glossary of Buddhism, 2nd ed., San Francisco, California: Sutra Translation Committee of the United States and Canada, 1998:

Secondary Fair Use Compilation Source: Muller, Charles, editor, Digital Dictionary of Buddhism [DDB], Toyo Gakuen University, Japan, 2007: Username is "guest", with no password. - Based in large part on the Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms with Sanskrit and English Equivalents (by Soothill and Hodous) Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass, 1997.

Secondary Fair Use Compilation Source: Ehrhard, Diener, Fischer, et al, The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen, Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala Publications, 1991. 296 pages. ISBN 978-0-87773-520-5,,


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