For rights regarding this Buddhist Ayurveda Encyclopaedia - Glossary - Dictionary of (Ayurveda Dharma) compilation as a whole and the text only (but not audios, videos, graphics or pictures) of this website, please know that it is all offered Copyleft and available for modification and reuse under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported License and the GNU Free Documentation License (FDLunversioned, with no invariant sections, front-cover texts, or back-cover texts). Since words create our reality (see prajna), there are certain words to avoid: Please see also: Words to Avoid.
The [[wp>Editor]]'s and [[wp>anonymous]] [[wp>Pandita]] [[wp>Commentator]]'s [[wp>intent]] is to [[wp>redact]] an extensive [[wp>non-profit]] educational-use-only commentaried [[wp>synthesis]] [[wp>redaction]] of Buddhist Ayurveda based on the [[wp>concept]]s of the following [[wp>discipline]]s: [[wp>Explication]], [[wp>Explanation]], [[wp>Translational science]], [[wp>Syncretism]], [[wp>Moral syncretism]], [[wp>Exegesis]], [[wp>Eisegesis]], [[wp>Exegete#Indian_philosophy]], [[wp>Shastra]], [[wp>Hermeneutics]], [[wp>Source criticism]], [[wp>Source evaluation]], [[wp>Critical reading]], [[wp>Textual criticism]], [[wp>Historical criticism]], [[wp>Redaction Criticism]], [[wp>Content analysis]] with [[wp>Peer review]].
Return to Textbook of Ayurveda Chapter Two
Introduction to Mantras Edit
These are all part of the extensive Dedication for Ayurveda Distance Learning Correspondence Course Students
Buddha Mantras: Edit
Bodhisattva Mantras Edit
Mantras are phrases of sound whose primary meaning or meanings is not cognitive, but on a spiritual level that transcends ordinary linguistic understanding.
Dharma Master Ku Shan said, 'The secret mantras in Sutras, as a rule, should not be translated. In the past Dharma Masters held various opinions about this, but the T'ien-Tai School compiled them into four:
1) A mantra contains the names of kings of ghosts and spirits. When you say the king's name, the subjects all obey, due to their respect for their lord. They dare not cause trouble. This is a fortunate benefit for the world.
2) The saying of a mantra is like the secret password of the military. If the reply is correct, there's no further question. If the reply is incorrect, one is punished. This is of benefit to humankind.
3) A mantra is a secret way to stop evil without anybody knowing it. [This is] like a lowly person who goes to another country and passes himself off as a prince. He marries the princess of that country, but he is bad tempered and hard to attend to. Then somebody comes along who knows him and reveals his disguise. He uses a verse to expose him, which quietly puts him in his place. (SM I 37-38)
"The verse goes:
Lacking virtue, you went to another country,
And cheated all the people there.
Originally you were a poor unfortunate man.
What right do you have to get so angry?" (SM I 38)
This has the benefit of correcting situations and stopping evil.
4) The mantra is the secret language of all Buddhas, and only the sages know about it. For example, when the king gives the order for saindhava, which is really one name for four things: salt, water, a vessel, and a horse, the multitude does not know what he wants. Only the wise officials know. A single phrase of the mantra is filled with many different powers: curing an illness, eradicating offenses, producing good, according with the Way, and entering into the primary truth. Mantras have these four benefits . . . [which correspond to the four meanings above]. (SM I 38-40)
(Source: Epstein, 2003: pp. 138 - 139)
1) Chinese Mandarin: jou , 2) Sanskrit: mantra, 3) Pali: manta, paritta, 4) Alternate Translations: formula, spell, charm, words with supernatural power.
See also: Great Compassion Mantra, Shurangama Mantra, dharani, Dharani Sutra, Five Methods of Buddhist Practice: Vajrayana - Mantrayana - Tantrayana - esoteric mysteries school, Buddha-recitation Meditation, Mindfulness.
See also: Mantras of the Eight Great Bodhisattvas: Avalokiteshvara Mantra, Manjushri Mantra, Samantabhadra Mantra, Ksitigarbha Mantra, Vajrapani Mantra, Medicine King Bodhisattva, Bodhisattva, dharani, mantra, Five School of Buddhism - Esoteric
Buddhist Text Translation Society (http://www.BTTSonline.org) References: HS 109-110, 116; SM VI ?; SM I 37-40; RH. mantra
 (Skt; Jpn )
A formula consisting of secret words or syllables said to embody mysterious powers. Mantra was rendered into Chinese as "true word." True Word ( Jpn Shingon) later became the name of an influential school of Esoteric Buddhism in Japan. Mantras are employed in the practice and ritual of Esoteric Buddhism, where they are believed to help achieve union with Mahavairochana Buddha. Esoteric Buddhism views them as the distillation of Buddhist truth. Source: http://www.sgilibrary.org/search_dict.php
Mantra in Buddhism
While similar to practices of Vedic society, the various traditions of Buddhism have developed their own distinctive understanding and practice of mantra. For example, the use of mantra in Tibetan Buddhism has evolved in dialogue with Bön and other Himalayan shamanic practice.
Mantra in Shingon Buddhism
Kūkai (774-835), a noted Buddhist monk, advanced a general theory of language based on his analysis of two forms of Buddhist ritual language: dharani (dhāra.nī) and mantra. Mantra is restricted to esoteric Buddhist practice whereas dharani is found in both esoteric and exoteric ritual. Dharanis for instance are found in the Pali Canon see below. The term "shingon" (lit true word) is a Japanese translation of the Chinese term for mantra, chen yen.
The word dharani derives from a Sanskrit root dh.r which means to hold, or maintain. Ryuichi Abe suggests that it is generally understood as a mnemonic device which encapsulates the meaning of a section or chapter of a sutra. This is perhaps related to the use of verse summaries at the end of texts as in the Udana which is generally acknowledged as being in the oldest strata of the Pali Canon. Dharanis are also considered to protect the one who chants them from malign influences and calamities.
The term mantra is traditionally said to be derived from two roots: "man", to think; and the action oriented (k.rt) suffix "tra". Thus a mantra can be considered to be a linguistic device for deepening ones thought, or in the Buddhist context for developing the enlightened mind. However it is also true that mantras have been used as magic spells for very mundane purposes such as attaining wealth and long life, and eliminating enemies.
The distinction between dharani and mantra is a difficult one to make. We can say that all mantras are dharanis but that not all dharanis are mantras. Mantras do tend to be shorter. Both tend to contain a number of unintelligible phonic fragments such as Om, or Hu.m which is perhaps why some people consider them to be essentially meaningless. Kūkai made mantra a special class of dharani which showed that every syllable of a dharani was a manifestation of the true nature of reality -- in Buddhist terms that all sound is a manifestation of shunyata or emptiness of self-nature. Thus rather than being devoid of meaning, Kūkai suggests that dharanis are in fact saturated with meaning -- every syllable is symbolic on multiple levels.
One of Kūkai's distinctive contributions was to take this symbolic association even further by saying that there is no essential difference between the syllables of mantras and sacred texts, and those of ordinary language. If one understood the workings of mantra, then any sounds could be a representative of ultimate reality. This emphasis on sounds was one of the drivers for Kūkai's championing of the phonetic writing system, the kana, which was adopted in Japan around the time of Kūkai. He is generally credited with the invention of the kana, but there is apparently some doubt about this story amongst scholars.
This mantra-based theory of language had a powerful effect on Japanese thought and society which up until Kūkai's time had been dominated by imported Chinese culture of thought, particularly in the form of the Classical Chinese language which was used in the court and amongst the literati, and Confucianism which was the dominant political ideology. In particular Kūkai was able to use this new theory of language to create links between indigenous Japanese culture and Buddhism. For instance, he made a link between the Buddha Mahavairocana and the Shinto sun Goddess Amaterasu. Since the emperors were thought to be descended form Amaterasu, Kūkai had found a powerful connection here that linked the emperors with the Buddha, and also in finding a way to integrate Shinto with Buddhism, something that had not happened with Confucianism. Buddhism then became essentially an indigenous religion in a way that Confucianism had not. And it was through language, and mantra that this connection was made. Kūkai helped to elucidate what mantra is in a way that had not been done before: he addresses the fundamental questions of what a text is, how signs function, and above all, what language is. In this he covers some of the same ground as modern day Structuralists and others scholars of language, although he comes to very different conclusions.
In this system of thought all sounds are said to originate from "a" -- which is the short a sound in father. For esoteric Buddhism "a" has a special function because it is associated with Shunyata or the idea that no thing exists in its own right, but is contingent upon causes and conditions. (See Dependent origination) In Sanskrit "a" is a prefix which changes the meaning of a word into its opposite, so "vidya" is understanding, and "avidya" is ignorance (the same arrangement is also found in many Greek words, like e.g. "atheism" vs. "theism" and "apathy" vs. "pathos"). The letter a is both visualised in the Siddham script, and pronounced in rituals and meditation practices. In the Mahavairocana Sutra which is central to Shingon Buddhism it says: Thanks to the original vows of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, a miraculous force resides in the mantras, so that by pronouncing them one acquires merit without limits". [in Conze, p.183]
Mantra in Indo-Tibetan Buddhism
Noted translator of Buddhist texts Edward Conze (1904 - 1979) distinguishes three periods in the Buddhist use of mantra.
Initially, according to Conze, like their fellow Indians, Buddhists used mantra as protective spells to ward of malign influences. Despite a Vinaya rule which forbids monks engaging in the Brahminical practice of chanting mantras for material gain, there are a number of protective for a group of ascetic monks. However, even at this early stage, there is perhaps something more than animistic magic at work. Particularly in the case of the Ratana Sutta the efficacy of the verses seems to be related to the concept of "truth". Each verse of the sutta ends with "by the virtue of this truth may there be happiness".
Conze notes that later mantras were used more to guard the spiritual life of the chanter, and sections on mantras began to be included in some Mahayana sutras such as the White Lotus Sutra, and the Lankavatara Sutra. The scope of protection also changed in this time. In the Sutra of Golden Light the Four Great Kings promise to exercise sovereignty over the different classes of demigods, to protect the whole of Jambudvipa (the India sub continent), to protect monks who proclaim the sutra, and to protect kings who patronise the monks who proclaim the sutra. The apotheosis of this type of approach is the Nichiren school of Buddhism that was founded in 13th century Japan, and which distilled many previously complex Buddhist practices down to the veneration of the Lotus Sutra through recitation of the daimoku: "Nam myoho renge kyo" which translates as "Homage to the Lotus Sutra".
The third period began, according to Conze, in about the 7th century, to take centre stage and become a vehicle for salvation in their own right. Tantra started to gain momentum in the 6th and 7th century, with specifically Buddhist forms appearing as early as 300CE. Mantrayana was an early name for the what is now more commonly known as Vajrayana, which gives us a hint as to the place of mantra in Indo-Tibetan Buddhism. The aim of Vajrayana practice is to give the practitioner a direct experience of reality, of things as they really are. Mantras function as symbols of that reality, and different mantras are different aspects of that reality -- for example wisdom or compassion. Mantras are often associated with a particular deity, one famous exception being the Prajnaparamita mantra associated with the Heart Sutra. One of the key Vajrayana strategies for bringing about a direct experience of reality is to engage the entire psycho-physical organism in the practices. In one Buddhist analysis the person consists of body, speech and mind. So a typical sadhana or meditation practice might include mudras, or symbolic hand gestures; the recitations of mantras; as well as the visualisation of celestial beings and visualising the letters of the mantra which is being recited. Clearly here mantra is associated with speech. The meditator may visualise the letters in front of themselves, or within their body. They may pronounced out loud, or internally in the mind only.
Om mani padme hum
Probably the most famous mantra of Buddhism is Om mani padme hum (Chn. , pinyin Ǎn Má Ní Bā Mī Hōng), the six syllable mantra of the Bodhisattva of compassion Avalokiteshvara (Tibetan: Chenrezig, Chinese: Guanyin). This mantra is particularly associated with the four-armed Shadakshari form of Avalokiteshvara. The Dalai Lama is said to be an incarnation of Avalokiteshvara, and so the mantra is especially revered by his devotees.
The book Foundations of Tibetan Mysticism by Lama Anagarika Govinda, is a classic example of how a mantra like om mani padme hum can contain many levels of symbolic meaning.
Donald Lopez gives a good discussion of this mantra and its various interpretations in his book Prisoners of Shangri-LA: Tibetan Buddhism and the West. Lopez is an authoritative writer and challenges the stereotypical analysis of the mantra as meaning "The Jewel in the Lotus", an interpretation that is not supported by either a linguistic analysis, nor by Tibetan tradition, and is symptomatic of the Western Orientalist approach to the 'exotic' East. He suggests that Manipadma is actually the name of a bodhisattva, a form of Avalokiteshvara who has many other names in any case including Padmapani or lotus flower in hand. The Brahminical insistence on absolutely correct pronunciation of Sanskrit broke down as Buddhism was exported to other countries where the inhabitants found it impossible to reproduce the sounds. So in Tibet, for instance, where this mantra is on the lips of many Tibetans all their waking hours, the mantra is pronounced Om mani peme hung.
 Some other mantras in Tibetan Buddhism
The following list of mantras is from Kailash - Journal of Himalayan Studies, Volume 1, Number 2, 1973. (pp. 168-169) (augmented by other contributors). It also includes renderings of Om mani padme hum.
Please note that the word swaha is sometimes shown as svaha, and is usually pronounced as 'so-ha' by Tibetans. Spellings tend to vary in the transliterations to English, for example, hum and hung are generally the same word. The mantras used in Tibetan Buddhist practice are in Sanskrit, to preserve the original mantras. Visualizations and other practices are usually done in the Tibetan language.
Om wagishwari hum This is the mantra of the Mahabodhisattva Manjusri, Tibetan: Jampelyang (Wylie "'jam dpal dbyangs")... The Buddha in his wisdom aspect.
Om mani padme hum The mantra of Chenrezig, Mahabodhisattva, the Buddha in his compassion aspect.
Om vajrapani hum The mantra of the Buddha as Protector of the Secret Teachings. ie: as the Mahabodhisattva Channa Dorje (Vajrapani).
om vajrasattva hum The short mantra for Vajrasattva, there is also a full 100-syllable mantra for Vajrasattva.
Om ah hum vajra guru padma siddhi hum The mantra of the Vajraguru Guru Padma Sambhava who established Mahayana Buddhism and Tantra in Tibet.
Om tare tuttare ture svaha The mantra of Jetsun Dolma or Tara, the Mother of the Buddhas.
Om tare tuttare ture mama ayurjnana punye pushting svaha The mantra of Dölkar or White Tara, the emanation of Tara representing long life and health.
Om amarani jiwantiye svaha The mantra of the Buddha of limitless life: the Buddha Amitayus (Tibetan Tsépagmed) in celestial form.
Om dhrum svaha The purificatory mantra of the mother Namgyalma.
Om ami dhewa hri The mantra of the Buddha Amitabha (Hopagmed) of the Western Buddhafield, his skin the colour of the setting sun.
Om ah ra pa tsa na dhih The mantra of the "sweet-voiced one", Jampelyang (Wylie "'jam dpal dbyangs") or Manjusri, the Bodhisattva of wisdom.
Hung vajra phat The mantra of the Mahabodhisattva Vajrapani in his angry (Dragpo) form.
Om muni muni maha muniye sakyamuni swaha The mantra of Buddha Sakyamuni, the historical Buddha
Om gate gate paragate parasamgate bodhi svaha The mantra of the Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom Sutra (Heart Sutra)
Om maitri maitreya maha karuna ye The Maitri mantra, bija mantra of MahaBodhisattva Maitreya.
Namo bhagavate Bhaishajya-guru vaidurya-praba-rajaya tathagataya arthate samyak-sambuddhaya tadyata OM bhaishajye bhaishajye bhaishajya-samudgate svaha The mantra of the 'Medicine Buddha', from Chinese translations of the Master of Healing Sutra. Om ami dewa hri The mantra of Amitabha (Ompagme in Tibetan).
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantra Siddhā means 'perfected' and is believed by some Buddhists to be the perfect script intended for writing the perfect language: Sanskrit.
Ancient Indians did not use writing for spiritual purposes. Scripture was heard at the foot of the master, and committed to memory. Writing was introduced, probably from Persia, by merchants who used it for commerce. King Aśoka (273-36 BCE) chose writing to communicate his message by having it carved on large pillars. He wrote in a vernacular Prākrit and mainly used the Brahmi script, although Kharoshtī and even Aramaic and Greek scripts were also used.
Siddham is descended from the Brāhmī script, which also gave rise to the Devanagari scripts as well as a number of non-Indian scripts such as the various Tibetan scripts, and most of the scripts of South-East Asia. It was an influence on the developement of the Japanese scipt, the kana, and on the Korea Hangul script.
The Buddhist scriptures that were taken east by Indian missionaries, and Chinese pilgrims were written in a number of languages and scripts. Siddham is really only remembered because the Japanese monks Kūkai and Saicho, studied it in China and tranplanted it into Japan in the early 9th century. Kūkai and Saicho founded, respectively, the Shingon and Tendai schools of Buddhism. Shingon is a purely esoteric, or Mantrayana school, whereas the Tendai school is primarily an exoteric school focused on the White Lotus Sutra, but incorporating esoteric elements.
An important change occured in China. In India, even though they did begin to write scripture down, it was always as an aid to memory - writing was secondary. The Indians had solved the problem of a large number of dialects and languages by using a lingua franca - Sanskrit, and to a lesser extent Pāli. In China however, which also boasts a large number of dialects, the problem was solved by a common writing system which could be pronounced according to dialect, but read the same everywhere. By the time the Buddhist scriptures arrived in China, nothing was worth anything unless it was written down. So Siddham came to be more important in it's own right.
Not long afterwards Kūkai and Saicho's visits, the T'ang dynasty collapsed and Buddhism almost died out in China - certainly esoteric Buddhism, in which the Siddham script was particularly used for writing mantras, did die out in China. However esoteric Buddhism, along with the study of Siddham, still survives in Japan.
The copying of sutras, mantras and seed syllables, known as "shakyo" is still an important spiritual practice in Shingon Buddhism.
 ( Jpn Risshu)
See True Word Precepts school.
 ( Jpn -shu)
See True Word school.
three True Word sutras
 (Jpn -sambu-kyo )
The Mahavairochana, Diamond Crown, and Susiddhikara sutras. In Japan, these sutras form the doctrinal basis for the True Word (Shingon) school and for the esoteric teachings of the Tendai school (Tendai Esotericism). They were called the three True Word sutras, following the model of the Pure Land ( Jodo) school, which had designated three Pure Land sutras. While the True Word school places greater emphasis on the Mahavai-rochana and Diamond Crown sutras, which represent the Womb Realm and the Diamond Realm respectively, Tendai Esotericism accords highest respect to the Susiddhikara Sutra, regarding it as a unification of both realms.
[http:// True Word Precepts school ]
 ( Jpn Risshu)
A school of Buddhism in Japan that is based on the doctrines of the True Word (Shingon) school and also observes the Mahayana and Hinayana precepts. Eizon (1201-1290) is regarded as the founder of the True Word Precepts school. In the Kamakura period (1185-1333), Eizon of Saidai-ji temple in Nara traveled widely to expound the benefit of observing the precepts and gained many disciples and converts. While dedicating himself to upholding the precepts and restoring the Precepts (Ritsu) school, Eizon also practiced the teachings of the True Word school. This dual orientation led to his founding of the True Word Precepts school, based at Saidai-ji temple. Ninsho(1217-1303), a disciple of Eizon also known as Ryokan, lived at Gokuraku-ji temple in Kamakura and disseminated his teacher's doctrine widely in the Kanto region of central Japan. In 1872 the True Word Precepts school became affiliated with the True Word school, but in 1895 it became independent again. The head temple of the school is Saidai-ji.
True Word school
 ( Jpn -shu)
A Buddhist school in Japan established by Kobo(774-835), also known as Kukai, that follows the esoteric doctrines and practices found in the Mahavairochana and Diamond Crown sutras. The name true word is the rendering in Chinese of the Sanskrit mantra (meaning secret word or mystic formula). In the True Word school, this indicates the words that Mahavairochana Buddha is said to have uttered. The chanting of these secret words is one of the school's basic esoteric rituals for the attainment of enlightenment. The True Word school maintains that Esoteric Buddhism was transmitted from Mahavairochana Buddha to Vajrasattva, and then down through Nagarjuna, Nagabodhi, Chin-kang-chih (Skt Vajrabodhi), Pu-k'ung (Amoghavajra), Hui-kuo, and finally to Kobo. The school also lists eight patriarchs who upheld Esoteric Buddhism: Nagarjuna and Nagabodhi who spread it in India; Chin-kang-chih, Pu-k'ung, and Shanwuwei (Shubhakarasimha) who introduced and established it in China; I-hsing and Hui-kuo who propagated it in China; and Kobowho brought it to Japan and founded the True Word school there. In 716 the monk Shubhakarasimha brought Esoteric Buddhism from India to Ch'ang-an in China, where he became known as Shanwuwei. Hsyan-tsung, the sixth emperor of the T'ang dynasty, honored and supported Shanwuwei, and his teachings spread widely in China. In 720 Vajrabodhi (Chin-kang-chih) and Amoghavajra (Pu-k'ung) also came from India to Lo-yang in China and introduced more of Esoteric Buddhism.In 804 Kobotraveled from Japan to Ch'ang-an, where he studied Esoteric Buddhism under Hui-kuo. During his stay there he received the teachings of the Diamond Realm and Womb Realm mandalas. In 806 he returned to Japan with numerous Buddhist scriptures, esoteric mandalas, and ritual implements, and in 809 entered the capital, Kyoto, where he advocated the supremacy of Esoteric Buddhism. In 816 he was granted a tract of land on Mount Koya on which to found a monastery. In 823 Kobowas also given another temple, To-ji, in Kyoto, which became the center of esoteric practice in Japan. In the late thirteenth century, dif-ferences in doctrinal interpretation resulted in the formation of the New Doctrine (Shingi) school, a branch of the True Word school based at Mount Negoro, and the teachings and traditions of Mount Koya and To-ji came to be called the Old Doctrine (Kogi) school. See also Kakuban; Raiyu; Yakushin. Source: http://www.sgilibrary.org/search_dict.php
Primary Fair Use Compilation Source:
Adapted from Fair Use Source: http://oneearthherbs.squarespace.com/downloads/BestOfTheBestHerbs.pdf
Alan Keith Tillotson, Ph. D., A.H.G., D.Ay, (Author), Nai-shing Hu Tillotson, O.M.D., L.Ac., One Earth Herbal Sourcebook: Everything You Need to Know About Chinese, Western, and Ayurvedic Herbal Treatments]], Burlingame, California: Kensington, 2001. ISBN 1575666170 Paperback: 596 pages.
Secondary Fair Use Compilation Sources:
Adapted from Fair Use Sources:
Adapted from Fair Use Source: Vaidya Gogte, Ayurvedic Pharmacology and Therapeutic Uses of Medicinal Plants, Dravyagunavignan, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 2001: p.
Adapted from Fair Use Source: Dan Bensky, Steven Clavey, Erich Stoger, Andrew Gamble]], Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica, Third Edition, Eastland Press, 2004: p.
Adapted from Fair Use Source: Sebastian Pole, LicOHM AyurHC, Ayurvedic Medicine The Principles of Traditional Practice, Churchill Livingstone, 2006: p.
Adapted from Fair Use Source: Will Maclean, Clinical Manual of Chinese Herbal Patent Medicines: a Guide to Ethical and Pure Patent Medicines, Pangolin Press, 2003, Revised Edition: p.
Adapted from Fair Use Source: Roger Wicke, Ph.D, Traditional Chinese Herbal Sciences Self-Study Reference TCM Herbal Tutor, Rocky Mountain Herbal Institute, RMH-Publications Trust, 2005.
Primary Original Source: The Tripitaka of Sutra, Shastra and Vinaya Dharma teachings (as found in the scripture storehouse of the Indian Sanskrit - Siddham, Chinese, Tibetan and Japanese traditions of the Nalanda Tradition of ancient Nalanda University) of Shakyamuni Buddha, and his Arya Sagely Bodhisattva Bhikshu Monk and Upasaka disciples.
These Good and Wise Advisors (Kaliyanamitra) Dharma Master teachers include Arya Venerables Monk Doctors Nagarjuna (Sushruta Samhita), Ashvaghosha, Aryasura, Aryadeva, Jian Zhen Shr and other lay healers such as Shen Nong - a transformation body of (Bhaisajya Raja Bodhisattva, Jivaka, Charaka (Caraka Samhita), Vagbhata (Astanga Hridayam), Zhang Zhongjing, Hua Tuo, Wang Shuhe, Huangfu Mi, Ge Hong, Tao Hongjing, Chao Yuanfang, Sun Simiao, Wang Tao, Qian Yi, Liu Wansu, Zhang Zihe, Li Dongyuan / Li Gao, Zhu Danxi, Li Shizhen, Wang Kentang, Wang Youxing, Zhang Jingyue, Ye Tianshi, Wang Qingren, Wu Shangxian, Vasant Lad, and Dharma Healers such as Kumarajiva, Shantideva, Chandrakirti, Chandragomin, Vasubandhu, Asanga, Hui Neng, Atisha, Kamalashila, Dharmarakshita, Tsong Khapa, Thogme Zangpo, Patanjali, Sushruta, Charaka, Vagbhata, Nichiren, Hsu Yun, Hsuan Hua, Shen Kai, Tenzin Gyatso, Kyabje Zopa, Ajahn Chah, and other modern day masters. We consider them to be in accord with Tripitaka Master Hsuan Hua’s "Seven Guidelines for Recognizing Genuine Teachers"
Nalanda Online University's teachings are based especially on the Sutra tradition of the Dharma Flower Lotus Sutra, the Avatamsaka Sutra, the Shurangama Sutra, the Ksitigarbha Sutra, the Bhaisajya Guru Sutra, the Dharani Sutra, the Vajra Sutra, the Prajna Paramita Hridayam Heart Sutra, and their commentaries (shastras) by the above Arya Tripitakacharya Dharma Masters and the Mantra tradition (see Mantra). In respect (bhakti), we say "Om Namo" to them all for their often selfless (no self) and anonymous contributions to Ayurveda and Chinese Medicine.
Click here for a list of Buddhist Distance Learning Programs without Ayurveda included.
For affordable donation-only extensive Buddhist Ayurveda Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Distance Learning Program Certification, call Medicine Buddha Healing Center at 1-510-292-6696.
The non-profit Ayurveda Healing Arts Institute (part of the Medicine Buddha Healing Center) offers affordable yet comprehensive distance learning (online correspondence course with regular phone support) and in-person apprenticeship formats leading to specialized Indian and Tibetan Ayur-Vedic Herbal Certifications and Ayur-Veda Diplomas.
• Taught by highly experienced degreed faculty clinicians and scholars. Our main teacher has served over 6000 patients from 1996 to 2010, 1900 patients with Dr. Vasant Lad during his formal six-year, 1800 hour clinical apprenticeship.
• MP3 recordings of over 1000 Patient Consultations for Clinical Experience. Searchable database of photographs of tongue diagnosis and iPod - iPhone compatible audio files of our main Berkeley Ayurvedic Practitioner's client visits.
• The Ayurveda Healing Arts Institute is currently the only educational program in the world to offer such an extensive collection of organized Ayurvedic clinical research of patient case studies (over 1500 hours worth of consultation audio recordings).
thus these research compilations of Ayurveda Dharma
and audio and video teaching materials are
The rights to textual segments ("quoted, paraphrased, or excerpted") of the are owned by the author-publisher indicated in the brackets next to each segment and are make available and commented on (under the "shastra tradition") under Fair Use.
For rights regarding the Buddhist Encyclopaedia - Glossary - Dictionary compilation as a whole and the text only (but not audios, videos, graphics or pictures) of this website, please know that it is all offered Copyleft and available for modification and reuse under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported License and the GNU Free Documentation License (unversioned, with no invariant sections, front-cover texts, or back-cover texts).
Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/us/